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American Society of Bioethics and Humanities (ASBH)

Serves as a resource for anyone interested in bioethics and humanities by providing a group of further on-line resources and links to aid in finding other related information through the Internet.

National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature

Offers extensive searches in Bioethics.

Nursing2015 - Issues in Nursing

A Nurse’s Obligations to Patients with Ebola

End of Life Issues

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN)
End-of-Life Nursing Consortium (ELNEC) - Information on a national education program to improve end-of-life (EOL) care by nurses.

Euthanasia Research and Guidance Organization (ERGO)
Compendium of information and news on "right-to-die" issues, plus a glossary of terms.

The Patients Rights Council
The Patients Rights Council is committed to the principle that you have the right to know all the facts about the critical issues of life, death, and assisted suicide. Few issues are as important as the compassionate treatment and care for those who are most vulnerable.

Not Dead Yet
Disability rights organization that strongly opposes the legalization of assisted suicide. Site contains articles, legal briefs, links, and more.

Compassion & Choices
The leading nonprofit organization committed to helping everyone have the best death possible. We offer free consultation, planning resources, referrals and guidance, and across the nation we work to protect and expand options at the end of life.

University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics
Information and background materials on end-of-life care.

National Hospice Organization
Founded in 1978, NHO is the oldest and largest nonprofit public benefit organization devoted to hospice care. Site features searchable database to locate hospices throughout the United States.

Hospice Foundation of America
Supports the hospice concept through educational programs and grants; site includes online version of Journeys, a newsletter to help individuals deal with grief and loss.

Philadelphia Inquirer Series: Seeking a Good Death
Five-article series addresses the rights of the dying and traces personal stories about end-of-life decision making.

Choice in Dying
Explanation of advance directives, with forms for every state available by downloading or mail order.

Government Agencies

Medicare & Medicaid Agency
Information, fact sheets, statistics and latest regulations, presented by the Health Care Financing Administration, federal agency that administers the programs.

Social Security Online
The official website of the Social Security Administration, providing information, forms, and resources.

National Institute on Aging
Lists and describes educational publications on medical and scientific aspects of aging, with ordering instructions.

Health Care Ethics

The Center for Health Ethics and Law at the West Virginia University
Health ethical issues for professionals and non-professionals.

Nuffield Council of Bioethics
Addresses issues of ethical concern in medicine and biology.

Centre for Applied Ethics, University of British Columbia
The Centre is an independent unit in the Faculty of Graduate Studies. It is primarily an interdisciplinary research centre which studies a diverse range of topics, including health care practices, business and professional procedures, new information technologies and environmental issues.

Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University
The Joseph P. and Rose F. Kennedy Institute of Ethics, is a teaching and research center offering ethical perspectives on major policy issues. It is the largest university based group of faculty members in the world devoted to research and teaching in biomedical ethics and other areas of applied ethics. The Institute also houses the most extensive library of ethics in the world, the National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature; produces BIOETHICSLINE®, an online medical ethics database; and conducts regular seminars and courses in bioethics.

The Hastings Center
The Hastings Center is an independent, nonpartisan, and nonprofit bioethics research institute founded in 1969. The Center's mission is to address fundamental ethical issues in the areas of health, medicine, and the environment as they affect individuals, communities, and societies.

The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues
The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (the Bioethics Commission) is an advisory panel of the nation’s leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The Bioethics Commission advises the President on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science and technology. The Bioethics Commission seeks to identify and promote policies and practices that ensure scientific research, health care delivery, and technological innovation are conducted in a socially and ethically responsible manner.

Human Trafficking

Office on Trafficking in Persons
An Office of the Administration for Children & Families.

National Human Trafficking Hotline
ACF Programs and Services for Human Trafficking.

Information Memorandum on Human Trafficking
Recognizing and Responding to Human Trafficking among American Indian, Alaska Native and Pacific Islander Communities.

HEAL Trafficking
Health, Education, Advocacy, Linkage. Because Human Trafficking Is A Public Health Issue.

American Nurse Today
The costly business of human trafficking.

Human Trafficking
Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking.
Role of Health Provider in Identifying and Assessing Victims of Human Trafficking
Educating Health Care Professionals on Human Trafficking (2014)

Resources: Common Health Issues Seen in Human Trafficking
US Department of Health & Human Services, Administration of Children & Families. Campaign to rescue and restore human trafficking: common health issues seen in human trafficking victims fact sheet. July 2012. 

National Human Trafficking Resource Center
Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery.

World Health Organization
Human trafficking: understanding and addressing violence against women, 2013.

Human Trafficking
An official position statement of the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

Leading from the Middle for Ethical Climate and Safety

Edmonson, C. (2015). Strengthening moral courage among nurse leaders. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 20 (2). Retrieved from: OJIN

Fox, E., Crigger, B.J., Bottrell, M., Bauck, P. (2007). Ethical Leadership: Fostering an Ethical Environment and Culture. Retrieved from

Keselman, D. (2012). Ethical leadership. Holistic Nursing Practice, 26 (5), 259-261.

Makaroff, K., Storch, J., Pauly, B., & Newton, L. (2014). Searching for ethical leadership in nursing. Nursing Ethics, 21 (6), 642-658.

Merrill, K. (2015). Leadership style and patient safety: Implications for nurse managers. Journal of Nursing Administration, 45(6), 319-324.

Pavlish, C., Brown-Saltzman, K., So, L., Heers, A. & Iorillo, N. (2015). Avenues of action in ethically complex situations: A critical incident study. Journal of Nursing Administration, 45 (6), 311-318.

Piper, L. (2011). The ethical leadership challenge: Creating a culture of patient and family-centered care in the hospital setting. Health Care Manager, 30 (2), 125-132.

Robichaux, C., & Sauerland, J. (2012). Health care quality and ethics: Implications for practice and leadership. Perioperative Nursing Clinics, 7 (3), 333-342.

Storch, J., Makaroff, K., Pauly, B., & Newton, L. (2013). Take me to my leader: The importance of ethical leadership among formal nurse leaders. Nursing Ethics, 20 (2), 150-157.

Thompson, D., Hoffman, L., & Sereika, S. (2011). A relational leadership perspective on unit-level safety climate. Journal of Nursing Administration, 41 (11), 479-487.

Moral Courage/Distress

Nurses practicing in today’s healthcare environment face increasingly complex ethical dilemmas. We encounter these dilemmas in situations where our ability to do the right thing is frequently hindered by conflicting values and beliefs of other healthcare providers. Some confront the ethical issues directly while others turn away. Upholding our commitment to patients requires significant moral courage. Moral courage helps us address ethical issues and take action when doing the right thing is not easy. Moral courage involves the willingness to speak out and do what is right in the face of forces that would lead us to act in some other way. Nurses who possess moral courage and advocate in the best interest of the patient may at times find themselves experiencing adverse outcomes. There is a need for all nurses in all roles across all settings to commit to working toward creating work environments that support moral courage. 

The Moral Distress Education Project
"Core multidisciplinary experts on moral distress from across the country were interviewed in a documentary-style media project. This project is a self-guided web documentary."

Compassion Fatigue as a Threat to Ethical Practice: Identification, Personal, and Workplace Prevention/Management Strategies
MEDSURG Nursing: July-August 2016

Exploring Moral Resilience Toward a Culture of Ethical Practice

Moral Resilience: Managing and Preventing Moral Distress and Moral Residue
MEDSURG Nursing: March-April 2016

Moral Distress References

Moral Distress in Academia
OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing

Moral Courage and the Nurse Leader
OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing

Creating Workplace Environments that Support Moral Courage
OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing

Strategies Necessary for Moral Courage
OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing

Moral Courage in Healthcare: Acting Ethically Even in the Presence of Risk
OJIN: Online Journal of Issues in Nursing

Understanding and Addressing Moral Distress
OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing

Using the AACN Framework to Alleviate Moral Distress
OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing

Moral Distress and Moral Courage in Everyday Nursing Practice
OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing

Moral Courage in Action: Case Studies
MEDSURG Nursing: August 2007

Moral Courage: A Virtue in Need of Development?
MEDSURG Nursing: April 2007

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