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About the Center

In September 1990, the Center for Ethics and Human Rights was established with the following guiding objectives:

  • Promulgate in collaboration with ANA constituents, a body of knowledge, both theoretical and practical, designed to address issues in ethics and human rights at the state, national and international level;
  • Develop and disseminate information about and advocate for public policy to assure that ethics and human rights are addressed in health care; and
  • Assure that short and long-range objectives regarding ethics and human rights will be addressed within the Association, and expressed to appropriate bodies external to the Association.

The Center continues to advance these originating goals and has become respected as an authority within the nursing community. The Center remains responsive to the changing realities within health care and the nursing profession and is committed to addressing professional, ethical and human rights challenges and ultimately to improving the quality of care rendered to patients and their families. Please direct questions and/or comments about The Center for Ethics and Human Rights to:

The American Nurses Association Center for Ethics & Human Rights

8515 Georgia Avenue
Suite 400
Silver Spring, MD 20910 
(301) 628-5000 
E-mail: ethics@ana.org

The Center's Staff

Liz Stokes

JD, MA, RN

Director

Liz Stokes is the Director of the American Nurses Association Center for Ethics and Human Rights and demonstrates expertise in writing public policy on ethical issues including medical marijuana, assisted death, intellectual disabilities, and women's reproductive health.

She completed her Bachelors of Science in Nursing at the University of Virginia and worked several years as a critical care nurse focusing on end-of-life care issues. Liz received her Juris Doctor from the University of Richmond and worked as a Discipline Consultant for the District of Columbia Board of Nursing interpreting and conferring professional ethical provisions in nursing. Her expertise and leadership is also demonstrated through various charitable roles in the health and legal communities.

She is a member of the Phi Delta Phi Legal Fraternity and currently serves on the board of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities Nurse Affinity Group. Her areas of expertise include bioethics, nursing ethics and substance use disorder in nursing. She is an international speaker on the Code of Ethics for Nurses is published in the Journal of Nursing Regulation and the Journal for Nurse Practitioners. Liz also serves as an Associate Editor for the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry.

She is an active volunteer with the District of Columbia Bar Association and has received national recognition for her pro bono efforts. Liz's sphere of influence as a nurse-attorney combined with her education in bioethics enables a unique contribution to nursing ethics, law and policy.

Advisory Board

The Center for Ethics and Human Rights Advisory Board is a deliberative body of experts who focus on providing guidance to the Center concerning issues of current ethical concern to nursing practice, education, research, administration, and other matters of concern relating to the Center's mission and goals. The Board recommends policy about issues of concern in Ethics and Human Rights to the ANA Board of Directors.

Advisory Board Members

Catherine Robichaux

PhD, RN, CNS, Alumnus CCRN

Term of Appointment 2014-2018

Catherine Robichaux is an assistant professor, adjunct, at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio, Texas, and The University of Mary in Bismarck, North Dakota. Her clinical background is adult critical care and she has taught ethics at the undergraduate and graduate levels and serves as the Nursing Ethics Council faculty advisor and research mentor at University Health System in San Antonio, Texas. Catherine has conducted and published funded research on ethical issues in end-of-life care in adult and pediatric/neonatal intensive care units and moral distress and ethical climate in acute care settings.She has also explored the quality of dying and death in rural and border hospitals in the Southwest.

Catherine has been contributing editor for ethical issues for Critical Care Nurse and serves on the editorial board of Clinical Nursing Studies and the editorial advisory board of OJIN. Catherine is the editor of the Springer publication Ethical Competence in Nursing Practice: Competencies, Skills, and Decision-Making (2016). She participated on the Steering Committee to revise the Code of Ethics (2015) and is a recipient of the Circle of Excellence Award from the American Association of Critical Care Nurses for her work in promoting ethical work environments

Donna M. Casey

BSN, MA, RN, NE-BC, FABC

Board Chairperson

Vice President Patient Care Services, Cardiovascular and Critical Care

Term of Appointment 2017-2020

Donna Casey received her associate’s degree in Nursing from the State University of New York, her bachelor’s degree in nursing from the University of Virginia School of Nursing and her Masters in Arts degree in Clinical Biomedical Ethics from the University of Virginia Graduate School of Arts & Sciences. Donna completed an executive fellowship with the Advisory Board Company in Washington, DC in 2008, and has started the journey to obtain her Doctorate in Executive Nursing Practice from the University of Nevada. She has over 25 years of professional nursing experience including clinical practice, education and leadership. Donna is also the co-chair of the Christiana Care Health System Ethics Committee providing leadership in education, policy and clinical consultation. Donna is a nationally recognized expert in clinical biomedical ethics.

Leadership Highlights:

Donna was instrumental in leading Christiana Care Health System to develop a shared decision making culture and continues to lead the evolution to interdisciplinary value improvement. She is a leader in the adoption of patient and family-centered care best practices. Donna partnered with teams to establish eCare telemedicine, the rapid response team, and the ICU admission team. Donna has served multiple regional and national offices – she is most recently secretary for the Delaware Organization of Nurse Leaders, and has served as secretary, vice-president, and president of the nursing affinity group of the American Society of Bioethics & Humanities.

Prior to accepting promotion to vice president of patient care services, as a nurse manager Donna lead her Intensive Care Unit in eliminating hospital infections, achieving high culture of safety scores, tier 1 employee engagement, zero lost time injuries, and very low staff turnover.

Eileen Weber

DNP, JD, BSN, PHN, RN

Term of Appointment 2017-2020

Eileen Weber is a nurse attorney and clinical assistant professor at the University of Minnesota School of Nursing, where she teaches pre-licensure and graduate nursing ethics and leadership courses. She serves on the school's Inclusivity and Diversity Committee and directs the Policy Dialogue Series for the Katharine J. Densford International Center for Nursing Leadership. She is faculty advisor for the interprofessional University of Minnesota Hotspotters student group collaborating with Jeffrey Brenner's Camden Coalition of Healthcare Providers and the National Center for Complex Health and Social Needs. She founded and leads the Upper Midwest Healthcare Legal Partnership Learning Collaborative and serves on the University of Minnesota Medical Center's hospital ethics committee.

Weber earned her Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree in Health Innovation and Leadership from the University of Minnesota. She earned her RN diploma from Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia, PA, her BSN summa cum laude from the University of Minnesota, and her JD in the founding class of the University of St. Thomas School of Law in Minneapolis. Her clinical experience and past certifications have been in urban critical care and emergency nursing. Weber has served as vice-president of the Minnesota Nurses Association, earning awards for political action and outstanding service.

She served on MNA's ethics committee and government affairs commission. She represented nursing on the Minnesota Health Care Commission, was a regular columnist for the St. Paul Pioneer Press and an occasional op-ed contributor for the Star Tribune. She coordinated Project DECIDE's 11 end-of-life care research projects for the University of Minnesota's Center for Bioethics. Weber coordinated and led interprofessional education with the nationally renowned Hennepin Health county-based care coordination initiative for Medicaid enrollees, and organized rural workshops for the Minnesota Department of Health's Health Care Homes program. She serves on the state health department's Health Care Homes/State Innovation Model Advisory Workgroup and the state's Environmental Health Tracking and Biomonitoring Advisory Board. She has extensive experience in legislative lobbying, community activism, and political campaign management. Weber's scholarship is focused on the intersection of nursing, law, ethics, public policy and interprofessional collaboration.

Elizabeth Swanson

DNP, MPH, APRN-BC

Term of Appointment 2014-2018

Elizabeth O’Connor Swanson is an Assistant Professor in the Mary Black School of Nursing at the University of South Carolina Upstate.   Betsy maintains an active clinical practice as a CNS/FNP at the Upstate Evaluation Center, South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice, where she provides primary care for adjudicated female juveniles.

Dr. Swanson earned an Associate Degree from Holyoke Community College, a BSN from Baylor University, and a Master in Nursing and Master in Public Health from Emory University.   After recognizing most young people that were incarcerated suffered with at least one mental health disorder, Betsy earned a certificate as a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Intervention Specialist at Arizona State University.   During her studies for a Doctor of Nursing Practice at the Medical University of South Carolina,   Dr. Swanson conducted research on unrecognized grief and post-traumatic stress in incarcerated female juveniles.  

Betsy’s interest in nursing ethics began very early in her career.  As a new graduate, she worked in a burn unit in Dallas where ethical dilemmas were common. Dr. Swanson has an interest in ethical issues facing nurses providing care to adolescents, particularly those nurses who work in a correctional setting.  She was a member of the Code of Ethics Revision Steering Committee. 

Kathryn Schroeter

PhD, RN, CNOR, CNE

Term of Appointment 2017-2020

After completing her BSN at Alverno College (Milwaukee, WI), she received a graduate degree from the School of Education at the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee. She obtained a Master’s degree in Bioethics from the Medical College of Wisconsin and then earned her doctoral degree in Nursing from the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee with her research focus on ethics in perioperative nursing practice.

Dr. Schroeter currently works as an Associate Professor at Marquette University College of Nursing in Milwaukee - where she teaches graduate courses including Ethics, Policy and Health Care Advocacy. Dr. Schroeter is also the Interim Dean and Clinical Professor at Columbia College of Nursing in Glendale, WI, where she teaches Bioethics at the undergraduate level. At the Medical College of Wisconsin, she is an adjunct Assistant Professor at the Center for Bioethics and Medical Humanities where she teaches clinical ethics and serves on both the Ethics Committee and the organizational Institutional Review Board.  In conjunction with that role, she also is a Nurse Scientist/Clinical Ethicist at Froedtert Hospital - a Level I Trauma Center in Milwaukee.

She served as a member of the ANA Code of Ethics Revision Steering committee and contributing author of the 2015 ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses.  She also served as the Code of Ethics liaison for the ANA workgroup charged with the 2015 revision of the ANA publication Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice. Her clinical practice area is perioperative nursing and she just completed an appointment as the chair of the AORN Ethics Task Force writing explications of the ANA Code of Ethics for perioperative nursing practice.

Dr. Schroeter has presented ethics topics at local, regional, national and international conferences and has co-authored a nursing ethics textbook entitled Practical ethics for nurses and nursing students. She has published over 50 ethics-focused articles, book chapters and columns/editorials.  She is a member of the American Nurses Association, American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, Association of periOperative Registered Nurses, Society of Trauma Nurses, International Academy of Nursing Editors, and Sigma Theta Tau.

Linda L. Olson

PhD, MBA, MSN, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN

Term of Appointment 2017-2020

Linda L. Olson, PhD, MBA, MSN, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN has held various positions in nursing practice, nursing administration, and nursing education, both in service and academic settings. She currently directs the Institute of Regulatory Excellence Fellowship Program at the National Council of State Boards of Nursing. This fellowship program prepares its fellows to conduct research projects that contribute to the science of nursing regulation. Prior to this, she was Professor and Dean of the School of Nursing at North Park University in Chicago, Illinois, and a former tenured Associate Professor in the graduate program at St. Xavier University in Chicago. Her areas of teaching expertise include nursing research at the undergraduate and graduate levels, health care policy and ethics, and health care leadership. She is currently an adjunct professor at Loyola University of Chicago, where she has taught courses in nursing ethics at the undergraduate level, and health care policy at the doctoral level with PhD students.

Dr. Olson completed a PhD in nursing science at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where her research focused on the topic of ethics and organizational climate. The instrument she developed as a component of her dissertation research, the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey, has been used by numerous nursing and healthcare researchers nationally and internationally. Dr. Olson served on the Code of Ethics Taskforce, which resulted in the 2001 revision of the Code. She has also served on the ANA Congress on Nursing Practice and Economics, and as a delegate from Illinois to the ANA House of Delegates. She has published chapters in the ANA publications on Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses: Interpretation and Application (2008, 2010), and The Essential Guide to Nursing Practice: Applying ANA's Scope and Standards in Practice and Education (2012).

Marcia Bosek

DNSc, RN

Term of Appointment 2014-2018

Marcia Bosek DNSc, RN is an Associate Professor at the University of Vermont where she teaches didactic and clinical nursing courses to undergraduate and doctoral nursing students.  In addition to her academic role, Dr. Bosek has 20 years of experience serving as a clinical ethicist at Rush University Medical Center and Fletcher Allen Health Care.

She holds a BSN from Goshen College, Goshen Indiana.  A MSN from Indiana University.  Her doctoral degree with a focus in nursing ethics was earned at Rush University.  Her program of research focuses on how healthcare professionals make clinical ethical decisions.  In 2013, she began investigating learning outcomes and ethical issues related to simulation learning.

Dr. Bosek (2007) co-authored a nursing ethics textbook titled The ethical component of nursing education: Integrating ethics into clinical experiences. She has published over 60 articles, book chapters and/or ethics columns.  She is a member of the American Nurses Association, Sigma Theta Tau, and American Society for Bioethics and Humanities.

Michele Upvall

PhD, RN, CNE

Term of Appointment 2017-2018

Michele J. Upvall PhD, RN, CNE is a Professor of Nursing and Coordinator of the Nurse Educator program at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, Florida. She earned her bachelor's degree from the Indiana University of Pennsylvania, a master's degree from Penn State University, and a PhD in Transcultural Nursing from the University of Utah. She also completed certification as a Family Nurse Practitioner from Arizona State University. In October 2016, she was named Fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine.

Dr. Upvall has extensive experience in the practice of global health. She studied the collaborative practices of nursing with indigenous healers in Swaziland and the Navajo Nation and she has worked with Somali refugee women and their families in Pennsylvania. Also, she served as a nurse educator for Project HOPE in Swaziland and nursing education consultant in Zanzibar and Lebanon. During her tenure at Northern Arizona University Dr. Upvall developed and coordinated the first local BSN program for Navajo and Hopi students in Ganado, Arizona. She then traveled to the Aga Khan University School of Nursing in Karachi, Pakistan where she was the Director of the BSN and RN to BSN programs. While in Pakistan, she facilitated the development of the first Masters of Nursing program in the country.

After five years in Pakistan, Dr. Upvall returned to the US to become Associate Dean of Nursing at Carlow University. She has numerous publications related to global health and is co-editor of the book, Global Health Nursing: Building and Sustaining Partnerships. Dr. Upvall recently completed a Fulbright scholarship at Khon Kaen University in Thailand where she now serves as a Senior Researcher in the Faculty of Nursing. Her current scholarship focus is research ethics capacity development in central Vietnam.

Nelda Godfrey

PhD, RN, ACNS-BC, FAAN

Professor and Associate Dean, Innovative Partnerships and Practice

Term of Appointment 2017-2020

Nelda Godfrey, PhD, RN, ACNS-BC, FAAN, is Professor at the University of Kansas School of Nursing. She has had more than 15 years of executive team leadership expertise in nursing practice and education and more than twenty years of PRN bedside nursing practice in urban Kansas City hospitals. She became the Associate Dean for Undergraduate Programs at the University of Kansas in 2008. Prior to joining the KU School of Nursing, Dr. Godfrey was Chair of the Department of Nursing at William Jewell College. She became a Clinical Nurse Specialist in Adult Health Nursing in 1994 and maintains American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) certification in adult clinical nurse specialist practice.

Under Dr. Godfrey's leadership the undergraduate team at the University of Kansas School of Nursing has become nationally known for its concept based learning approach in the BSN and RN-BSN programs. Dr. Godfrey is past president of the Organizational Leadership Network through the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. She has published extensively in the areas of health care ethics, leadership in nursing and virtue ethics, and co-authored the book "The Making of Nurse Professionals: A Transformational, Ethical Approach" in 2011. She has taught Professional Development I: Introduction to the Profession in the newly revised BSN curriculum at the University of Kansas, and speaks widely about her research program of study: the formation and fostering of professional identity formation within the discipline of nursing. In her twenty-year background in health care ethics, Dr. Godfrey has presented more than 100 poster and podium presentations locally, regionally, nationally and internationally, and has more than 20 peer reviewed publications. She has been visiting faculty for the Harvard-Macy Institute on Leading Innovations in Health Care Education, and has also been a regular columnist in the Kansas City Star weekly publication, NurseWeek.

Dr. Godfrey has 14 years of service on the ethics committees of two hospitals, and has been a member of the ethics consult team. She served for four years as the co-lead for the Missouri Action Coalition, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation/AARP grass roots initiative to implement the key messages of the 2010 Institute of Medicine Report "The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health." She is currently the president of the Missouri Nurses Foundation, the philanthropic and educational arm of the Missouri Nurses Association through ANA, and participating internationally in research on professional identity in nursing.

Thomas Coe

PhD, NEA-BC, MBA, MHA, FACHE

Term of Appointment 2017-2020

(Thomas) Ray Coe earned a BA in Biology and BS in Education and from the University of Tennessee @ Knoxville (UTK) and his BSN from Tennessee Technological University (TTU). He earned his Master of Science as a Medical-Surgical Clinical Nurse Specialist from the University of Maryland at Baltimore, his Master Health Administration from Baylor University in Waco TX and his MBA from TTU. He earned his PhD in Nursing Administration from UTK with a focus on staff retention. Ray studied nursing ethics under Dr. Sara Fry at UM@B, bioethics with Dr. Robert Veatch at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University and Ethics at the End of Life as part of a program provided in collaboration with the Hastings Center.

Ray has served on the ANA Board of Directors, the Bylaws Committee, the Political Action Committee and the Congress on Nursing Practice and Economics. He is a retired Lieutenant Colonel (LTC) Army Nurse Corps where he held various staff and leadership positions including section supervisor and Chief, Nursing Research. Currently he is the Chief, Nursing Research and Acting Chief, Nursing Education at the Dallas VA Medical Center. He continues to focus on staff retention as well as staffing effectiveness and transition to practice. He is co-chair of the Ethics Consultation Committee at the Dallas VAMC.

Code of Ethics for Nurses With Interpretive Statements

(View Only for Members and Non-Members)

Activities

Consultation and Clearinghouse

Constituent Member Associations (CMAs), individual nurses, nurse administrators, educators, journal editors, lawyers, physicians, human rights organizations and other health professionals frequently contact the Center. Issues of interest include the creation and participation in ethics committees at the institutional and state level, clarification of ANA position statements, policies and guidelines of the Code for Nurses With Interpretive Statements.

The Center regularly receives calls from nurses seeking advice on specific cases, references, citations and summaries of current literature. Information and guidance related to the implementation of the Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA), advance directives and development of ethics courses and programs are often sought. ANA Organizational Units receive consultation, dissemination of pertinent information on an ongoing basis, as well as, assistance in ensuring that ethical and human rights issues are addressed throughout the organization.

Policy Development

End-of-Life Issues

The former Task Force on the Nurse's Role in End-of-Life Decisions developed position statements on assisted suicide and active euthanasia which were approved by the ANA Board of Directors in December 1994. The Center continues its work on end-of-life issues through activities with the Robert Wood Johnson funded programs such as the Last Acts Campaign. We have participated in curriculum development and teaching activities for the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium (ELNEC) offered by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) and the City of Hope Medical Center. We are a member of Nursing Leadership Academy in End-of-Life Care created by the Institute for Johns Hopkins Nursing and supported by the SOROS Foundation. Joan Laurie, a member of the New Jersey State Nurses Association, is coordinating a series of articles that will appear in the American Nurses (TAN). Contact the Center for more information.

See Ethics and Human Rights position statements

Genetic Advances

In the mid 1990s, the Center developed a publication, through a grant program funded by the National Institutes of Health, entitled"Managing Genetic Information: Policies for U.S. Nurses." This publication provides guidance to nurses as they confront the challenges related to handling increasing amounts of genetic information. The Center has applied (in collaboration with other organizations) for additional NIH funding to develop genetics education programs for health professionals.

Through the Center, the ANA along with the American Medical Association and the National Human Genome Research Institute created the National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics. This coalition aims to provide an organized, systematic and national approach to the provision of genetics education for all health care professionals. The Coalition is comprised of leaders from approximately 100 diverse health care professional organizations, consumer and voluntary groups, government agencies, private industry, managed care organizations and genetic professional societies.

Health Care Issues

Using Nursing's Agenda for Health Care Reform as a basis, the Center is tracking the human rights and ethics issues in health care initiatives (e.g. organizational ethics, confidentiality, and privacy, managed care, changing provider mix, health services, for undocumented persons) and the impact on the profession of nursing.

Education and Outreach

The Center maintains contact with the 54 Constituent Member Associations (CMAs) to provide an opportunity for identification and discussion of priority issues within the states and exploration and development of professional and ethical nursing practice. On-site consultation and presentations are provided to CMAs and other organizations such as the Oncology Nursing Society, the American Society of Bioethics and Humanities, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Association of Practical and Professional Ethics, and the Association of Law, Medicine and Ethics.

The Center has established liaisons with national bioethics centers and human rights organizations. It has participated in developing and conducting seminars and ethics courses for nursing programs.

The Center promotes dissemination of information on issues of ethics and human rights through the website and its newsletter Issues Update and other articles produced by the Center.

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