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Library of Magnet Journal Articles

Nurse Attraction and Retention

  • Lower nurse dissatisfaction and burnout [1]
    • Kelly, McHugh, & Aiken, 2011
  • Higher nurse job satisfaction [1-4]
    • Kelly, McHugh, & Aiken, 2011
    • Hickson, 2013
    • Lacey, Cox, et al., 2007
    • Ulrich, Woods, et al., 2007
  • Lower RN turnover [5-6]
    • Park et al., 2016
    • Staggs & Dunton, 2012

Quality and Safety

  • Higher adoption of National Quality Forum safe practices [7]
    • Jayawardhana, Welton, & Lindrooth, 2011
  • Lower overall missed nursing care [8]
    • Kalisch & Lee, 2012
  • Higher support for evidence-based practice implementation [9]
    • Melnyk, Gallagher-Ford, Fineout-Overholt, & Kaplan, 2012
  • Higher nurse perceptions of the quality of care [10-12]
    • Djukic, Kovner, Brewer, Fatehi, & Cline, 2013
    • McHugh & Stimpfel, 2012
    • Stimpfel et al., 2014
  • Higher patient ratings of hospital experience [13-16]
    • Chen, Koren, Munroe, & Yao, 2014
    • Lasater, Germack, Small, McHugh, 2016 [CMS hospital VBP measure]
    • Smith, 2014
    • Stimpfel, Sloane, et al., 2016

Patient Outcomes

  • Lower mortality [17-22]
    • Bekelis, Missios, Todd, Mackenzie, 2017
    • Evans, Rittenhouse, Horst, Osler, Rogers, Miller, Martin, Mooney, & Rogers, 2014
    • Friese, Xia, Ghaferi, Birkmeyer, & Banerjee, 2015
    • Lake, Staiger, Horbar, Cheung, Kenny, Patrick, & Rogowski, 2012
    • McHugh, Kelly, Smith, Wu, Vanak, & Aiken, 2013
    • Missios & Bekelis, 2017
  • Lower failure-to-rescue [19, 21]
    • Friese, Xia, Ghaferi, Birkmeyer, & Banerjee, 2015
    • McHugh, Kelly, Smith, Wu, Vanak, & Aiken, 2013
  • Lower patient fall rates [23-24]
    • Everhart, Schumacher, Duncan, Hall, Neff, & Shorr, 2014
    • Lake, Shang, Klaus, & Dunton, 2010
  • Lower nosocomial infections [20]
    • Lake, Staiger, Horbar, Cheung, Kenny, Patrick, & Rogowski, 2012
  • Lower hospital-acquired pressure ulcers [25]
    • Bergquist-Beringer, Dong, He, Dunton, 2013
  • Lower central line-associated bloodstream infection rates [26]
    • Barnes, Rearden, McHugh, 2016

Lower Costs

  • Lower RN turnover [5-6]
    • Park et al., 2016
    • Staggs & Dunton, 2012
  • Lower length of stay [17, 22]
    • Bekelis, Missios, Todd, Mackenzie, 2017
    • Missios & Bekelis, 2017
  • Higher net inpatient income [27]
    • Jayawardhana, Welton, Lindrooth, 2014


  1. Kelly LA, McHugh MD, Aiken LH. Nurse outcomes in Magnet and non-Magnet hospitals. J Nurs Adm. 2011 Oct;41(10):428-33.
  2. Hickson J. New nurses’ perceptions of hostility and job satisfaction. J Nurs Adm. 2013 May;43(5):293-301.
  3. Lacey SR, Cox KS, Lorfing KC, Teasley SL, Carroll CA, Sexton K. Nursing support, workload, and intent to stay in Magnet, Magnet-aspiring, and non-Magnet hospitals. J Nurs Adm. 2007 Apr;37(4):199-205.
  4. Ulrich BT, Woods D, Hart KA, Lavandero R, Leggett J, Taylor D. Critical care nurses’ work environments: value of excellence in Beacon units and Magnet organizations. Crit Care Nurse 2007 Jun;27(3):68-77.
  5. Park SH, Gass S, Boyle DK. Comparison of reasons for nurse turnover in Magnet and non-Magnet hospitals. J Nurs Adm. 2016 May;46(5):284-90.
  6. Staggs VS, Dunton N. Hospital and unit characteristics associated with nursing turnover include skill mix but not staffing level: an observational cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012 Sep;49(9):1138-45.
  7. Jayawardhana J, Welton JM, Lindrooth R. Adoption of National Quality Forum safe practices by Magnet hospitals. J Nurs Adm. 2011 Sep;41(9):350-6.
  8. Kalisch BJ, Lee KH. Missed nursing care: Magnet versus non-Magnet hospitals. Nurs Outlook. 2012 Sep-Oct;60(5):e32-9.
  9. Melnyk BM, Gallagher-Ford L, Fineout-Overholt E, Kaplan L. The state of evidence-based practice in US nurses: critical implications for nurse leaders and educators. J Nurs Adm. 2012 Sep;42(9):410-7.
  10. Djukic M, Kovner CT, Brewer CS, Fatehi FK, Cline DD. Work environment factors other than staffing associated with nurses’ ratings of patient care quality. Health Care Manage Rev. 2013 Apr-Jun;38(2):105-14.
  11. McHugh MD, Stimpfel AW. Nurse reported quality of care: a measure of hospital quality. Res Nurs Health. 2012 Dec;35(6):566-75.
  12. Stimpfel AW, Rosen JE, McHugh MD.  Understanding the role of the professional practice environment on quality of care in Magnet and non-Magnet hospitals. J Nurs Adm. 2014 Jan;44(1):10-6.
  13. Chen J, Koren ME, Munroe DJ, Yao P. Is the hospital’s Magnet status linked to HCAHPS scores? J Nurs Care Qual. 2014 Oct-Dec;29(4):327-35.
  14. Lasater KB, Germack HD, Small DS, McHugh MD. Hospitals known for nursing excellence perform better on Value Based Purchasing measures. Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2016 Nov;17(4):177-186.
  15. Smith SA. Magnet hospitals: higher rates of patient satisfaction. Policy Polit Nurs Pracr. 2014 Feb;15(1-2):30-41.
  16. Stimpfel AW, Sloane DM, McHugh MD, Aiken LH. Hospitals known for nursing excellence associated with better hospital experience for patients. Health Serv Res. 2016 Jun;51(3):1120-34.
  17. Bekelis K, Missios S, MacKenzie TA. Association of Magnet status with hospitalization outcomes for ischemic stroke patients. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Apr 18;6(4):pii: 3005880.
  18. Evans T, Rittenhouse K, Horst M, Osler T, Rogers A , Miller JA, Martin C, Mooney C, Rogers FB. Magnet hospitals are a magnet for higher survival rates at adult trauma centers. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Jul;77(1):89-94.
  19. Friese CR, Xia R, Ghaferi A, Birkmeyer, Banerjee M. Hospitals in ’Magnet’ program show better patient outcomes on mortality measures compared to non-‘Magnet’ hospitals. Health Aff. 2015 Jun;34(6):986-92.
  20. Lake ET, Staiger D, Horbar J, Cheung R, Kenny MJ, Patrick T, Rogowski JA. Association between hospital recognition for nursing excellence and outcomes of very low-birth-weight infants. JAMA. 2012 Apr 25;307(16):1709-16.
  21. McHugh MD, Kelly LA, Smith HL, Wu ES, Vanak JM, Aiken LH. Lower mortality in Magnet hospitals. Med Care. 2013 May;51(5):382-8.
  22. Missios S, Bekelis K. Association of hospitalization for neurosurgical operations in Magnet hospitals with mortality and length of stay. Neurosurgery. 2017 May 3. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyx203. [Epub ahead of print]
  23. Everhart D, Schumacher JR, Duncan RP, Hall AG, Neff DF, Shorr RI. Determinants of hospital fall rate trajectory groups: a longitudinal assessment of nurse staffing and organizational characteristics. Health Care Manage Rev. 2014 Oct-Dec;39(4):352-60.
  24. Lake ET, Shang J, Klaus S, Dunton NE. Patient falls: association with hospital Magnet status and nursing unit staffing. Res Nurs Health. 2010 Oct;33(5):413-25.
  25. Bergquist-Beringer S, Dong L, He J, Dunton N. Pressure ulcers and prevention among acute care hospitals in the United States. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2013 Sep;39(9):404-14.
  26. Barnes H, Rearden J, McHugh MD. Magnet hospital recognition linked to lower central line-associated bloodstream infection rates. Res Nurs Health. 2016;39:96-104.
  27. Jayawardhana J, Welton JM, Lindrooth RC. Is there a business case for Magnet hospitals? Estimates of the cost and revenue implications of becoming a Magnet. Med Care. 2014 May;52(5):400-6.

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