Nurses come into contact with diverse patients and communities. They care for individuals and groups from varying demographics such as race, gender, and ethnicity, but also with varying lifestyles, hobbies, travel and work locations, and treatment preferences. Some groups have greater risk for vaccine-preventable diseases, and there are specific vaccine resources for these groups. Others face a disparity in access to vaccinations, be it for financial, geographic, or cultural reasons.
In order to help these groups attain maximum vaccination coverage, nurses should help identify the vaccine and educational needs of these populations. While we are a diverse nation, we all need vaccines to promote community immunity!
Individuals 7-18 years old need immunizations in order to stay healthy and to avoid vaccine preventable diseases. Studies have revealed that preteens and adolescents are often overlooked and do not always receive recommended vaccinations. The American Academy of Family Physicians, the Centers for Disease Control and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend vaccines during routine adolescent well visits. Whether you are a health care provider, consumer or a caregiver, review these valuable resources from the CDC to learn about the most up-to-date information about preteen and adolescent vaccinations.
Adult Vaccine Recommendations are revised annually. Health care providers and consumers should check the CDC site https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/imz/adult.html annually to ensure up-to-date information is being used since the CDC, in conjunction with the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) annually publishes updated vaccine recommendations.
Infants & Children
Due to their immature immune system, infants and young children are especially susceptible to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. Immunizations are crucial in the prevention and spread of vaccine-avoidable diseases and protect infants and children against dangerous complications. Immunizations are one of the most important actions a parent can do to protect their children’s health. Failure to vaccinate may mean putting children at risk for serious diseases.
**Please review the following reliable resources in order to understand the importance of infant and childhood immunizations.
Binational Vaccinations: Vaccinations that have been administered in Mexico may not meet U.S. immunization standards. .
National Infant Immunization Week (NIIW) is an annual observance that stresses the importance of protecting infants from vaccine-preventable diseases and celebrates the achievements of immunization programs and their partners in promoting healthy communities.
Understanding the Purpose of Vaccines
How Vaccines Prevent Diseases
Includes illustrations to help you better understand how vaccines protect children from diseases.
Parents’ Guide to Childhood Immunizations
An easy to-read-guide for parents to learn about how immunization protects infants and children.
Every Child by Two's campaign, "Vaccinate Your Baby"
Don’t be deceived by immunization myths and incorrect information. Vaccines protect children by vaccination. Delaying or refusing vaccines places children across the country at risk for diseases like Hib, whooping cough and measles.
Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule (birth through six years old)
An easy to navigate web-based and printable tool to view the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention vaccination schedule for your child.
Healthcare Provider Visits
Deciding to vaccinate is a valuable opportunity to support the health and well-being of your child. Although you know that vaccinations keep your child healthy, it can be stressful for both you and your child. Learn simple strategies to support your child before, during, and after shots.
How to Hold Your Child during Vaccinations
See how a comforting hold can support your child and make the vaccination process less stressful on you and your child.
Frequently Asked Questions
Medical Management of Vaccine Reactions in Children and Teens
A step-by-step guide on the signs of symptoms of a vaccine reaction.
Six common misconceptions about immunization
In partnership, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) dispel immunization myths and misconceptions that would hinder childhood vaccinations.
If You Choose Not to Vaccinate Your Child, Understand the Risks and Responsibilities
Outlines possible risks for parents who choose to delay or decline a vaccine; offers steps for parents to take to protect their child, family and others.
Vaccinate Your Family a program of Every Child by Two (ECBT). A vaccine save lives and reduces disease related complications. Supported by, but not limited to, the American Academy of Pediatrics, National Foundation of Infectious Disease (NFID), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and American Academy of Family Physicians.
Specific Health Conditions
- The American Lung Association’s MyShot initiative https://getmyshot.org/
- CDC’s Educating Adults with Chronic Health Conditions: Vaccination Resources https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/adults/for-patients/health-conditions.html
Vaccinations that have been administered in Mexico may not meet U.S. immunization standards.
Learn meningitis vaccine basics, who should receive the vaccine, who should not receive the vaccine, possible reactions to the vaccine and vaccine safety.
Frequently asked questions and answers
School Entry Requirements State-By-State
All states have minimum immunization requirements for children in order for them to attend child care or school. These requirements ensure that communicable diseases are not spread in the school setting, so that children can learn in a safe, healthy environment.
Its Their Turn! Initiative
Adolescent Vaccine Materials for State and Local Health Departments. CDC has created a set of materials to help state and local health departments support the implementation of ACIP adolescent vaccine recommendations.
- HPV Vaccine Safety and Effectiveness
A fact sheet that informs health care consumers about HPV vaccination safety.
Listed by vaccine: Detailed list of vaccinations that should not be administered. Because of age, health conditions, or other factors, some people should not get certain vaccines or should wait before getting them.
Guide to Vaccine Contraindications and Precautions
A guide designed to assist immunization providers common symptoms and conditions should contraindicate vaccination.
Vaccine information and recommendations before, during and after pregnancy.
Protect Yourself Against Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B. A Guide for Gay and Bisexual Men
Men who have sex with men are at increased risk of becoming infected with both the hepatitis A virus and the hepatitis B virus. Although these viruses can be transmitted in different ways, both can be spread through sexual activity.
Vaccinations for Adults: You are Never Too Old to Get Immunized
Receiving immunizations throughout your lifespan is on way to avoid vaccine-preventable diseases.
CDC Spanish Immunization Website
Vaccination Materials in Spanish
Educational Print Materials: Healthcare Workers
Vaccination Information for Healthcare Professionals. Source Immunization Action Coalition
Measles: CDC Update 2/27/19
From January 1 to February 21, 2019, 159* people from 10 states (CA, CO, CT, GA, IL, NJ, NY, OR, TX, and WA) have been reported as having measles. Five outbreaks (defined as 3 or more linked cases) have been reported, in Rockland County, New York; Monroe County, New York; New York City; Washington; Texas; and Illinois. Of these outbreaks, 2 outbreaks are ongoing from 2018. CDC urges healthcare professionals to ensure that all patients are up to date on MMR vaccine, including before international travel.
What Should Clinicians Do?
- Discuss the importance of MMR vaccine with parents. Listen and respond to parents’ questions. When parents have questions, it does not necessarily mean they won’t accept vaccines. Sometimes, they simply want your answers to their questions.
- Ensure all patients are up to date on measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine.
- Children need 2 doses of MMR: one dose at 12-15 months and another dose at 4-6 years.
- Before any international travel, infants 6-11 months need 1 dose of MMR vaccine, children 12 months and older need 2 doses separated by at least 28 days, and teenagers and adults who do not have evidence of immunity against measles need 2 doses separated by at least 28 days.
- Consider measles in patients presenting with febrile rash illness and clinically compatible measles symptoms (cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis), and ask patients about recent travel internationally or to domestic venues frequented by international travelers, as well as a history of measles exposures in their communities.
- Promptly isolate patients with suspected measles to avoid disease transmission and immediately report the suspect measles case to the health department.
- Obtain specimens for testing from patients with suspected measles, including viral specimens for genotyping, which can help determine the source of the virus. Contact the local health department with questions about submitting specimens for testing.
For more information, including guidelines for patient evaluation, diagnosis and management, visit: https://www.cdc.gov/measles/hcp/index.html
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