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Library of Pathway Associated Concepts

Notes on Selected Research Studies Relevant to Pathway to Excellence® Standards

The tables below list selected research studies that found a favorable association between a variable we interpret to be consistent with a Pathway to Excellence characteristic and patient, nurse, or organizational outcomes.

Standard 1. Shared Decision-Making
Study: Pathway-relevant measure(s): Associated outcome(s):
Clarke (2007)
— 11,512 nurses in 188 hospitals in Pennsylvania
higher nurse participation in hospital affairs lower needle or sharps injuries
Flynn et al. (2012)
— 686 RNs in 82 medical-surgical units in 14 hospitals in New Jersey
higher nurse participation in hospital affairs higher error interception practices, which linked to lower medication errors
Friese & Himes-Ferris (2013)
— 242 outpatient oncology nurses in a large southeastern state
higher nurse participation in practice affairs higher intent to stay
Gregory et al. (2010)
— 548 acute care nurses in Canada
higher control/empowerment and input into decision-making higher nurse perceptions of quality of care, standards of care, and safety issues
Hanrahan, Aiken, et al. (2010)
— 353 direct inpatient care psychiatric nurses in 67 hospitals in Pennsylvania
higher nurse participation in hospital affairs lower emotional exhaustion
Kutney-Lee et al. (2016)
— 20,674 RNs in 425 hospitals in California, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Florida
higher engagement in shared governance lower nurse reports of
  • high burnout
  • high job dissatisfaction
  • intent to leave
  • poor quality of care and patient safety
  • experience of care
  • hospital rating
  • willingness to recommend hospital
higher patient reports of
  • experience of care
  • hospital rating
  • willingness to recommend hospital
Laschinger (2008)
— 234 nurses in tertiary care hospitals in Ontario
higher nurse participation in hospital affairs
  • higher job satisfaction
  • higher RN ratings of quality of care on unit
Laschinger et al. (2009)
— 247 new graduate nurses from hospital inpatient units in Ontario
higher nurse participation in hospital affairs lower emotional exhaustion
Laschinger & Leiter (2006)
— 8,597 acute care nurses in Ontario and Alberta
higher nurse participation in hospital affairs lower nurse-reported adverse events
Leineweber, Chungkham, et al. (2014)
— 8,948 medical/surgical RNs in 53 hospitals in Sweden
higher nurse participation in hospital affairs lower work-family conflict
Leiter & Laschinger (2006)
— 8,597 nurses in acute care hospitals in Ontario and Alberta
higher nurse participation in hospital affairs lower burnout
Nowrouzi et al. (2015)
— 506 registered practical nurses in Ontario, Canada
higher involvement in decision making higher intent to stay in current position for next 5 years
Papastavrou et al. (2015)
— 1,163 RNs and LPNs in 91 wards in 34 hospitals in Cyprus, Finland, Greece, Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, and the state of Kansas
higher control over practice higher nurse perceptions of individualized care successfully provided to patients in latest shift
Zaheer et al. (2015)
— 2,495 nurses (81%), physicians (13%), and pharmacists (6%) in 13 hospitals in Ontario, Canada
higher levels of participative leadership stronger frontline staff perceptions of patient safety climate (senior and supervisory leadership support for patient safety)

 

Standard 2. Leadership
Study: Pathway-relevant measure(s): Associated outcome(s):
Boev (2012)
— 671 nurses and 1,532 discharged patients from 4 critical care units in a New York hospital
higher perceptions of nurse manager ability, leadership, and support higher patient reports of satisfaction with nursing care
Carter & Tourangeau (2012)
— 17,707 RNs and midwives at 147 acute and 20 specialist hospitals in England
better relationships with and support from manager less intention to leave
Duffield et al. (2010)
— 1,559 nurses in 91 wards in 21 public hospitals in 2 Australian states
higher perceptions of
  • senior nursing administrator who is highly visible and accessible to staff
  • nurses actively participating in efforts to control costs
  • a nurse manager who is a good manager and leader
higher job satisfaction
Flynn et al. (2012)
— 686 RNs in 82 medical-surgical units in 14 hospitals in New Jersey
higher perceptions of nurse manager ability, leadership, and support higher error interception practices, which linked to lower medication errors
Friese (2005)
— 1,956 nurses in 22 hospitals
higher perceptions of nurse manager ability, leadership, and support
  • lower emotional exhaustion
  • lower job dissatisfaction
  • higher RN ratings of quality of care
Hanrahan, Aiken, et al. (2010)
— 353 direct inpatient care psychiatric nurses in 67 hospitals in Pennsylvania
higher perceptions of nurse manager ability, leadership, and support lower nurse reports of
  • emotional exhaustion
  • depersonalization of patients
Hanrahan, Kumar, et al.
— 353 direct inpatient care psychiatric nurses in 67 hospitals in Pennsylvania
higher perceptions of nurse manager ability, leadership, and support lower nurse-reported frequency of
  • work-related staff injuries
  • patient falls with injuries
Jourdain & Chenevert (2010)
— 1,636 RNs working in hospitals in Canada
higher support from supervisor lower depersonalization of patients, which in turn related to higher professional commitment and lower intent to leave the profession
Laschinger (2008)
— 234 nurses in tertiary care hospitals in Ontario
higher perceptions of nurse manager ability, leadership, and support
  • higher job satisfaction
  • higher RN ratings of quality of care on unit
Laschinger et al. (2009)
— 247 new graduate nurses from hospital inpatient units in Ontario
higher perceptions of nurse manager ability, leadership, and support lower emotional exhaustion
Laschinger & Leiter (2006)
— 8,597 acute care nurses in Ontario and Alberta
higher perceptions of nurse manager ability, leadership, and support lower nurse-reported adverse events
Leineweber, Westerlund, et al. (2014)
— 8,620 RNs in 53 hospitals in Sweden
better leadership and support for RNs reduced risk of
  • emotional exhaustion
  • depersonalization of patients
Leiter & Laschinger (2006)
— 8,597 nurses in acute care hospitals in Ontario and Alberta
higher perceptions of nurse manager ability, leadership, and support lower burnout
Roche et al. (2015)
— 1,673 nurses in 62 wards in 11 hospitals in 3 states in Australia
higher perceptions of nurse unit manager leadership skills lower intent to leave within 12 months
Sawatzky & Enns (2012)
— 261 RNs in adult emergency departments in Manitoba, Canada
higher perceptions of nursing management higher engagement, which in turn related to lower intent to leave current position
Van Bogaert et al. (2013)
— 1,201 RNs in 116 units in 8 hospitals in Belgium
higher perceptions of nurse management at the unit level
  • higher nurse-assessed quality of care
  • higher nurse job satisfaction, intent to stay in the hospital, and intent to stay in nursing

 

Standard 3. Safety
Study: Pathway-relevant measure(s): Associated outcome(s):
Chang & Mark (2011)
— 4,954 medical-surgical RNs in 286 units in 146 US hospitals
stronger learning climate (communication and thinking about errors) lower medication errors
Houser et al. (2012)
— 420 nurses in 54 units in 9 hospitals in Colorado
higher RN involvement in planning for staffing higher unit-level indicators of patient satisfaction with nursing care
Mark et al. (2007)
— approx. 4,000 nurses in 143 hospitals
stronger safety climate fewer back injuries
Richter et al. (2016)
— 237,409 clinical staff in 1,046 hospitals
higher perceptions of management support for safety higher perceptions of successful handoffs
Rosen et al. (2010)
— 4,581 VA hospital workers in 29 hospitals
higher overall emphasis on safety lower rates of
  • decubitus ulcer
  • iatrogenic pneumothorax
Steyrer et al. (2013)
— 549 nurses, 185 physicians, and ICU 378 patients in 57 hospitals in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland
more positive safety climate (management commitment to patient safety, organizational learning, communication and cooperation, and attitude toward safety management) lower rates of medical errors
Tvedt et al. (2012)
— 3,618 nurses in surgical and medical wards in 35 hospitals in Norway
higher patient safety management nurse-reported:
  • higher quality of nursing care
  • higher patient safety ratings
  • higher ratings of patients' self-care ability
  • lower frequency of adverse events
Vaughn et al. (2004)
— 1,454 healthcare workers (1,047 RNs) in 84 Iowa hospitals
higher management support for safety more consistent adherence to safe needle precautions
Zaheer et al. (2015)
— 2,495 nurses (81%), physicians (13%), and pharmacists (6%) in 13 hospitals in Ontario, Canada
higher ease for reporting events stronger frontline staff perceptions of patient safety climate (senior and supervisory leadership support for patient safety)

 

Standard 4. Quality
Study: Pathway-relevant measure(s): Associated outcome(s):
Brooks et al. (2009)
— 1,578 patients in 12 Midwest acute care hospitals
intervention of evidence-based pain management practices lower total cost per inpatient stay, cost per day, and length of stay
Doran et al. (2014)
— 338 nurses and 939 clients from 13 home care offices in Ontario, Canada
higher number of nursing sensitive EBP interventions documented in client records improvements in
  • risk of dyspnea on discharge
  • pain frequency
  • number of falls
  • pressure ulcer occurrences
Gittell et al. (2000)
— 338 care providers (nurses and physicians) from 9 hospitals, 878 orthopedic patients
higher mutual respect, shared goals, and frequency of communication (dimensions of “relational coordination”)
  • lower length of stay
  • higher quality of care
  • higher postoperative freedom from pain
  • higher postoperative functioning
Gregory et al. (2010)
— 548 acute care nurses in Canada
higher satisfaction with managerial and interdisciplinary relations higher nurse perceptions of quality of care, standards of care, and safety issues
Hickey et al. (2013)
— 3,413 pediatric critical nurses with 26,158 congenital heart disease patients in 38 children’s hospitals
participation in national quality metric benchmarking lower odds of in-hospital mortality
Titler et al. (2009)
— 669 hospitalized older adults in 12 Midwest acute care hospitals
intervention of evidence-based pain management practices lower mean pain intensity

 

Standard 5. Well-Being
Study: Pathway-relevant measure(s): Associated outcome(s):
Carter & Tourangeau (2012)
— 17,707 RNs and midwives at 140 acute and 20 specialist hospitals in England
better ability to achieve good work-life balance lower intention to leave
Duffield et al. (2010)
— 1,559 nurses in 91 wards in 21 public hospitals in 2 Australian states
  • higher availability of flexible or modified work schedules
  • higher praise and recognition for a job well done
higher job satisfaction
Estryn-Behar et al. (2010)
— 866 nurses in Belgium, Germany, Finland, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and Slovakia
work schedule difficulties exited organization in past year
Leineweber et al. (2016)
— 23,076 RNs Belgium, England, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland
higher satisfaction with scheduling flexibility less likely to
  • leave hospital
  • leave nursing profession
Penz et al. (2008)
— 944 RNs in rural hospitals in Canada
higher satisfaction with scheduling and shifts higher job satisfaction
Tourangeau & Cranley (2006)
— 6,856 RNs and 1,325 RPNs in Ontario, Canada
higher satisfaction with praise and recognition higher intention to remain employed in current hospital

 

Standard 6. Professional Development
Study: Pathway-relevant measure(s): Associated outcome(s):
Boyle et al. (2016)
— 5,144 patient care units in 857 hospitals
higher unit-level rates of specialty certification better quality on a composite index of pressure ulcer and fall rates
Boltz et al. (2013)
— 44 medical and medical-surgical units serving older adults in 25 hospitals
higher percent unit RNs certified in any specialty lower fall rates
Carter & Tourangeau (2012)
— 17,707 RNs and midwives at 140 acute and 20 specialist hospitals in England
more perceived developmental opportunities lower intention to leave
Covell & Sidani (2013)
— 91 units in 6 hospitals in Ontario and Quebec
higher unit-level proportion of RNs with specialty certification
  • lower rates of hospital- acquired infection
  • lower vacancy rates (less unfilled positions)
  • lower reruitment rates (less need to hire nurses)
Estryn-Behar et al. (2010)
— 866 nurses in Belgium, Germany, Finland, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and Slovakia
dissatisfied with development opportunities exited organization in past year
Flinkman et al. (2008)
— 147 nurses in 6 hospital districts in Finland
lower rating of development opportunities more frequent thoughts of leaving nursing in the last 12 months
Kendall-Gallagher & Blegen (2009)
— 48 ICUs in 29 hospitals
higher proportion of certified staff RNs in unit lower annualized rate of falls
Rondeau et al. (2009)
— 680 CNOs and others responsible for nursing function at 232 hospitals and 473 long-term care facilities in Canada
higher intensity of staff training and development across 10 broad areas (e.g., workplace safety, clinical skills, quality improvement, and team effectiveness) lower turnover (percentage of RNs that voluntarily left the organization in the past year)
Rush et al. (2015)
— 245 new graduate nurses in acute care settings in British Columbia
participation in formal new graduate transition program higher scores on transition experience (workplace integration)
Spector et al. (2015)
— 486 new graduate nurses in 51 hospitals in Illinois, North Carolina, and Ohio
participation in established (vs. limited) onboarding/transition program nurse self-reports of:
  • fewer patient care errors
  • fewer negative safety practices employed
  • higher competency levels
  • lower work stress
  • better job satisfaction organization reports of:
  • higher retention rates
Trinchero et al. (2013)
— 827 nurses in 6 public and private hospitals in Italy
higher satisfaction with training and development provided by the hospital higher employee engagement
Unruh & Zhang, 2014a
— 533 newly licensed RNs in Florida
higher perceptions of having a good orientation lower turnover (nurse reports of leaving a job within 1.5-2.5 years of graduating)
Unruh & Zhang, 2014b
— 414 newly licensed RNs in Florida
more positive orientation experience higher job satisfaction
Vander Elst et al. (2016)
— 633 nurses from a large home healthcare organization in Belgium
more opportunities provided in the job situation to learn and to develop
  • higher work engagement
  • lower burnout
Warshawsky et al. (2016)
— 348 nurse managers working in 9 healthcare systems
organizational support for ongoing development of nursing leaders (culture of generativity)
  • higher job satisfaction
  • lower intent to leave

 

References

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Boltz M, Capezuti E, Wagner L, Rosenberg MC, Secic M. Patient safety in medical-surgical units: can nurse certification make a difference? Medsurg Nurs. 2013 Jan-Feb;22(1):26-32, 37.

Boyle DK. Jayawardhana A, Burman ME, Dunton NE, Staggs VS, Berquist-Beringer S, Gajewski BJ. A pressure ulcer and fall rate quality composite index for acute care units: a measure development study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2016 Nov;63:73-81.

Brooks JM, Titler MG, Ardery G, Herr K. Effect of evidence-based acute pain management practices on inpatient costs. Health Serv Res. 2009 Feb;4(1):245-263.

Carter MR, Tourangeau A. Staying in nursing: what factors determine whether nurses intend to remain employed? J Adv Nurs. 2012 68(7):1589-1600.

Chang Y, Mark B. Effects of learning climate and registered nurse staffing on medication errors. Nurs. Res. 2011 Jan-Feb;60(1):32-39.

Clarke SP. Hospital work environments, nurse characteristics, and sharps injuries. Am J Infect Control. 2007 Jun;35(5):302-309.

Covell CL, Sidani S. Nursing intellectual capital theory: testing selected propositions. J Adv Nurs. 2013 69(11):2432- 2445.

Doran D, Lefebre N, O'Brien-Pallas L, Estabrook CA, White P, Carryer J, Sun W, Qian G, Bai YQ, Li M. The relationship among evidence-based practice and client dyspnea, pain, falls, and pressure ulcer outcomes in the community setting. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2014 Oct;11(5):274-83.

Duffield CM, Roche MA, Blay N, Stasa H. Nursing unit managers, staff retention and the work environment. J Clin Nurs. 2010 20:23-33.

Estryn-Behar M, van der Heijden BIMJ, Fry C, Hasselhorn H-M. Longitudinal analysis of personal and work-related factors associated with turnover among nurses. Nurs Res. 2010 May-Jun;59(3):166-177.

Flinkman M, Laine, M Leino-Kilpi H, Hasselhorn H-M, Salantera S. Explaining young registered Finnish nurses’ intention to leave the profession: a questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2008;45:727-739.

Flynn L, Liang Y, Dickson GL, Xie M, Suh D-C. Nurses’ practice environments, error interception practices, and inpatient medication errors. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2012 Jun;44(2):180-186.

Friese CR. Nurse practice environments and outcomes: implications for oncology nursing. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2005 Jul;32(4):765-772.

Friese CR, Himes-Ferris L. Nursing practice environments and job outcomes in ambulatory oncology settings. J Nurs Adm. 2013 Mar;43(3):149-154.

Gittell JH, Fairfield KM, Bierbaum B, et al. Impact of relational coordination on quality of care, postoperative pain and functioning, and length of stay: a nine-hospital study of surgical patients. Med Care. 2000 Aug;38(8):807-819.

Gregory DM, Way CY, Barrett BJ, Parfrey PS. Predictors of perceived health care quality for registered nurses during and after health care reform. Health Care Manag Rev. 2010 Oct-Dec;35(4):301-311.

Hanrahan NP, Aiken LH, McClaine L, Hanlon AL. Relationship between psychiatric nurse work environments and nurse burnout in acute care general hospitals. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2010 Mar;31(3):198-207.

Hanrahan NP, Kumar A, Aiken LH. Adverse events associated with organizational factors of general hospital inpatient psychiatric care environments. Psychiatr Serv. 2010 Jun 61(6):569-74.

Hickey PA, Gauvreau K, Curley MAQ, Connor JA. The effect of critical care nursing and organizational characteristics on pediatric cardiac surgery mortality in the United States. J Nurs Adm. 2013 43(12)637-44.

Houser J, ErkenBrack L, Handberry L, Ricker F, Stroup L. Involving nurses in decisions: improving both nurse and patient outcomes. J Nurs Adm. 2012 Jul-Aug;42(7-8):375-382.

Jourdain G, Chenevert D. Job demands—resources, burnout and intention to leave the nursing profession: A questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2010 Jun;47(6):709-722.

Kendall-Gallagher DK, Blegen MA. Competence and certification of registered nurses and safety of patients in intensive care units. Am J Crit Care. 2009 Mar;18(2):106-116.

Kutney-Lee A, Germack H, Hatfield L, Kelly S., Maguire P, Dierkes A, Del Guidice M, Aiken LH. Nurse engagement in shared governance and patient and nurse outcomes. J Nurs Adm. 2016 46(11):605-612.

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Laschinger HKS, Leiter MP. The impact of nursing work environments on patient safety outcomes: the mediating role of burnout/engagement. J Nurs Adm. 2006 May;36(5):2

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Leineweber C, Chungkham HS, Lindqvist R, Westerlund H, Runesdotter S, Smeds Alenius L, Tishelman C; RN4CAST consortium. Nurses’ practice environment and satisfaction with schedule flexibility is related to intention to leave due to dissatisfaction: a multi-country, multilevel study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2016 58:47-58.

Leineweber C, Westerlund H, Chungkham HS, Lindqvist R, Runesdotter S, Tishelman C. Nurses’ practice environment and work-family conflict in relation to burn out: a multilevel modeling approach. PLOS One. 2014 May;9(5):e96991.

Leiter MP, Laschinger HKS. Relationships of work and practice environment to professional burnout. Nurs Res. 2006 Mar/Apr;55(2):137-146.

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Nowrouzi B, Rukholm E, Lariviere M, Carter L, Koren I, Mian O. An examination of retention factors among registered practical nurses in north-eastern Ontario, Canada. Rural Remote Health. 2015 Apr-Jun;15(2):3191.

Papastavrou E, Acaroglu R, Sendir M, et al. The relationship between individualized care and the practice environment: an international study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2015 Jan;52(1):121-133.

Penz K, Stewart NJ, D’Arcy C, Morgan D. Predictors of job satisfaction for rural acute care registered nurses in Canada. West J Nurs Res. 2008 Nov;30(7):785-800.

Richter JP, McAlearney AS, Pennell ML. The influence of organizational factors on patient safety: examining successful handoffs in health care. Health Care Manag Rev. 2016 Jan-Mar;41(1):32-41.

Roche MA, Duffield C, Dimitrelis S, Frew B. Leadership skills for nursing unit managers to decrease intention to leave. Nursing Res and Rev. 2015 5:57-64.

Rondeau KV, Williams ES, Wagar TH. Developing human capital: what is the impact of nurse turnover? J Nurs Manag. 2009 17:739-748.

Rosen AK, Singer S, Zhao S, Shokeen P, Meterko M, Gaba D. Hospital safety climate and safety outcomes: Is there a relationship in the VA? Med Care Res Rev. 2010 Oct;67(5):590-608.

Rush KL, Adamack M, Gordon J, Janke R, Ghement IR. Orientation and transition programme component predictors of new graduate workplace integration. J Nurs Manag. 2015 23:143-155.

Sawatzky JV, Enns CL. Exploring the key predictors of retention in emergency nurses. J. Nurs Manag. 2012 20:696- 707.

Spector N, Blegen MA, Silvestre J, Barnsteiner J, Lynn MR, Ulrich B, Fogg L, Alexander M. Transition to practice study in hospital settings. J Nurs Regul. 2015 Jan;4(4):24-38.

Steyrer J, Schiffinger M, Huber C, Valentin A, Strunk G. Attitude is everything?: The impact of workload, safety climate, and safety tools on medical errors: a study of intensive care units. Health Care Manag Rev. 2013 Oct- Dec;38(4):306-16.

Titler MG, Herr K, Brooks JM, et al. Translating research into practice intervention improves management of acute pain in older hip fracture patients. Health Serv Res. 2009 Feb:44(1):264-287.

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Trinchero E, Brunetto Y, Borgonovi E. Examining the antecedents of engaged nurses in Italy: perceived organisational support (POS); satisfaction with training and development; discretionary power. J Nurs Manag. 2013 21:805-816.

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Unruh LY, Zhang NJ. The hospital work environment and job satisfaction of newly licensed registered nurses. Nurs Econ 2014b 32(6):296-311.

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