Ethics is an integral part of the foundation of nursing. Nursing has a distinguished
history of concern for the welfare of the sick, injured, and vulnerable and for social
justice. This concern is embodied in the provision of nursing care to individuals
and the community. Nursing encompasses the prevention of illness, the alleviation
of suffering, and the protection, promotion, and restoration of health in the
care of individuals, families, groups, and communities. Nurses act to change those
aspects of social structures that detract from health and well-being. Individuals who
become nurses are expected not only to adhere to the ideals and moral norms of
the profession but also to embrace them as a part of what it means to be a nurse.
The ethical tradition of nursing is self-reflective, enduring, and distinctive. A code
of ethics makes explicit the primary goals, values, and obligations of the profession.
The Code of Ethics for Nurses serves the following purposes:
- It is a succinct statement of the ethical obligations and duties of every
individual who enters the nursing profession.
- It is the profession’s nonnegotiable ethical standard.
- It is an expression of nursing’s own understanding of its commitment
There are numerous approaches for addressing ethics; these include adopting
or subscribing to ethical theories, including humanist, feminist, and social ethics,
adhering to ethical principles, and cultivating virtues. The Code of Ethics for
Nurses reflects all of these approaches. The words “ethical” and “moral” are used
throughout the Code of Ethics. “Ethical” is used to refer to reasons for decisions
about how one ought to act, using the above mentioned approaches. In general,
the word “moral” overlaps with “ethical” but is more aligned with personal belief
and cultural values. Statements that describe activities and attributes of nurses in this Code of Ethics are to be understood as normative or prescriptive statements
expressing expectations of ethical behavior.
The Code of Ethics for Nurses uses the term patient to refer to recipients of
nursing care. The derivation of this word refers to “one who suffers,” reflecting a
universal aspect of human existence. Nonetheless, it is recognized that nurses also
provide services to those seeking health as well as those responding to illness, to
students and to staff, in healthcare facilities as well as in communities. Similarly,
the term practice refers to the actions of the nurse in whatever role the nurse fulfills,
including direct patient care provider, educator, administrator, researcher,
policy developer, or other. Thus, the values and obligations expressed in this Code
of Ethics apply to nurses in all roles and settings.
The Code of Ethics for Nurses is a dynamic document. As nursing and its
social context change, changes to the Code of Ethics are also necessary. The Code
of Ethics consists of two components: the provisions and the accompanying
interpretive statements. There are nine provisions. The first three describe the
most fundamental values and commitments of the nurse; the next three address
boundaries of duty and loyalty, and the last three address aspects of duties beyond
individual patient encounters. For each provision, there are interpretive statements
that provide greater specificity for practice and are responsive to the contemporary
context of nursing. Consequently, the interpretive statements are subject to more
frequent revision than are the provisions. Additional ethical guidance and detail
can be found in ANA or constituent member association position statements that
address clinical, research, administrative, educational, or public policy issues.
Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements provides a framework for
nurses to use in ethical analysis and decision-making. The Code of Ethics establishes
the ethical standard for the profession. It is not negotiable in any setting nor
is it subject to revision or amendment except by formal process of the House of
Delegates of the ANA. The Code of Ethics for Nurses is a reflection of the proud
ethical heritage of nursing, a guide for nurses now and in the future.
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