Research Studies

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Literature Reviews | Research Studies

The National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators® (NDNQI®), a Press Ganey solution, has research efforts that cover several directions. First and foremost is the generation of new knowledge regarding the relationship between nurse staffing and nursing practice and outcomes of patient care. Secondly, NDNQI® is committed to allowing reputable researchers to engage in research using certain aspects of the database. These researchers’ projects must contribute to the nursing knowledge base. Thirdly, NDNQI® evaluates existing “nursing-sensitive” indicators for their utility and validity for nursing. In addition, nursing-sensitive indicators are developed, pilot tested and implemented by NDNQI®.

The Economic Contributions of Nursing Care

The economic aspects of healthcare are a major national issue. In 2005, health care consumed 15% of the Gross National Product (GNP), which reflects continuing growth of healthcare consumption. ANA works with independent researchers and contracts with organizations to develop a portfolio of research in this area.

Literature Reviews

  • Relationship Between Nurse Staffing and Patient Outcomes
    An extensive review of the empirical literature regarding the relationship between nurse staffing and patient outcomes was undertaken to ascertain the nature of the body of evidence. Although over 300 studies were identified, only 61 had quantified measures of nurse staffing and patient outcomes. The review found that research designs, indicator definitions, variety of indicators used, and sample size varied greatly among the studies. To ascertain the value of the 61studies with consistent findings, further evaluation of the individual studies is needed. The studies must be reviewed for the appropriateness of research methods, indicator definitions, risk adjustment, and all aspects of statistical analyses. Understanding the implications of design and analyses decisions should help to advance research in the area of nurse staffing and patient outcomes. (Unpublished as of July, 2004. For more information, Contact ANA via e-mail.)
  • Patient Classification Systems
    An extensive review of the literature was done to determine the state of the science on patient classification systems. The literature demonstrated that a myriad of approaches were taken. The most literature came from Europe where systems focusing on the nursing burden each patient presented were the core of the assessments. Most studies were case studies or limited to one or two facilities. Many articles contained sparse details on the approach used to test the systems. This research approach severely limited the generalizability of any of the studies. (Unpublished as of July, 2004 For more information,  Contact ANA via e-mail.

Research Studies by ANA

ANA has conducted several data based studies (1997, 2000), as well as, several literature reviews (patient classification systems, relationship between nurse staffing and patient outcomes, etc.). The conduct of empirical studies is based upon the needs of the Association as related to emerging nursing issues. Literature reviews are conducted when the Association needs a better understanding of the extent of an issue, the breadth of opinion on an issue and/or the state of science in an area. Much of this research is conducted to support policy development.

Studies below are available from