Annotated References

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  1. Avalere Health LLC. (2015 September). Optimal nurse staffing to improve quality of care and patient outcomes. American Nurses Association White Paper. Retrieved from:

  2. Mensik J. (2014, February). What every nurse should know about staffing. American Nurse Today, 9(2). Retrieved from:

  3. American Nurses Association. (2012). ANA's Principles for Nurse Staffing, 2nd ed. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.

  4. Wagner, K., Lee, F. W., & Glaser, J. P. (2013). Health Care Information Systems A Practical Approach for Health Care Management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  5. Behner, K., Fogg, L., Frankenbach, J., & Robertson, S. (1990). Nursing resource management: Analyzing the relationship between cost and quality in staffing decisions. Health Care Management Review, 15(4), 63-71.

  6. Mark, B., Burleson, D., (1995). Measurement of patient care outcomes: Data availability and consistency across hospitals. Journal of Nursing Administration, 25(4), 52-59.

  7. Abdellah, F., Levine, E. (1979). Better patient care through nursing research. 2nd Ed., New York, NY: McMillan.

  8. O'Keefe, M. (2016). Practical steps for applying acuity-based staffing. American Nurse Today, 11(9), 30-34.

  9. De Groot, HA. (1989). Patient classification system evaluation: Essential system elements: part 1. Journal of Nursing Administration, 19(6), 30-35.

  10. De Groot, HA. (1989). Patient classification system evaluation: System selection and implementation: part 2. Journal of Nursing Administration, 19(7), 24-30.

  11. Malloch, K. (2013). Patient classification systems: State of the science 2013. Nurse Leader, 11(6), 35-37.

  12. Bolton, L, Jones, D., Aydin, C., Donaldson, N., Brown, D., Lowe, M., McFarland, P., Harms, D., (2001). A response to California's mandated nursing ratios. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33(2), 179-184.

  13. Fasoli, D., Fincke, M., Haddock, K. (2011). Going beyond patient classification systems to create an evidence-based staffing methodology. Journal of Nursing Administration, 41(10), 434-439.

  14. Adeylotte, M. Nurse staffing methodology: A review and critique of selected literature (No NIH 73-433). Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office.

  15. Fasoli, D., Haddock, K. (2010). Results of an integrative review of patient classification systems. Annual Review of Nursing Research, 28, 295-316.

  16. Giovanetti, P. (1978) Patient classification systems in nursing: A description and analysis. Springfield VA: National Technical Information Service; 1978.

  17. Malloch, K. (2012). Changing tides: Evidence to embrace a patient classification system. Nursing Economics, 30(6), 356-358.

  18. De Groot, HA (1994). Patient classification systems and staffing: part 2, Practice and process. Journal of Nursing Administration, 24(10), 17-23.

  19. De Groot, HA (2005) Evidence-based leadership: Nursing's new mandate. Nurse Leader, April, 37-41.

  20. Fleury, M.J. (2006). "Integrated Service Networks: The Quebec Case." Health Services Management Research 19: 153-65.

  21. Powell Davies, G.P. (1996). Chapter 1: Integration: An overview. In G. Powell Davies, L. Betbeder-Matibet, A. Nicholls, F. Reynolds, M.A. Bonney, V. Traynor and G. Lucas, eds., General Practice Integration: A Literature Review. Centre for General Practice Integration Studies, University of New South Wales.

  22. Matthews, S. and Pronovost, P. (2011). The need for systems integration in health care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 305 (9), 934-35).

Additional Resources

Carnegie Mellon University (n.d.). Software system integration. Retrieved from:

Techwell (n.d.). Effective methods for software and systems integration. Retrieved from: